IQ testing in a nutshell: The basic facts, those that are often unknown

 

IQ tests predict educational and occupational outcomes, for which they have proven accuracy, not intelligence per se.  One should not overstate their value or meaning. 

References to support this:

Wechsler 1975; Kaufman, 1979; Kaufman, 1994; Kaufman and Lichtenberger 1999; Lichtenberger and Kaufman, 2009; Weiss et al, 2010; Kranzler et al, 2015; Abad et al, 2016

IQ tests test a small range of cognitive abilities only and as such, they miss a lot of important aspects of how people function.

References to support this:

Wechsler 1975; Gardner, 1983; Gardner 1999; Wechsler, 2008; Kaufman 2009; Stanovich 2009; Furnham et al 2012

IQ tests are not always reliable measures of intelligence. This means results can be distorted, or wrong.

References to support this:

Kaufman and Lichtenberger, 1999; Groth-Marnat at al, 2000; Chelune 2003; Wechsler, 2008; Whitaker 2008; Kaufman 2009; Gordon et al 2010; Benson et al 2010; Levin et al, 2010; Whitaker 2010; Whitaker and Wood 2010; Estevis et al 2012; McDermott et al 2014.  Chen et al 2016.  Gomez et al, 2016.

Retesting with IQ tests invariably leads to increases in the later score. These increases can be very large, especially when the first test score was very low.

References to support this:

Lineweaver and Chelune 2003; Chelune 2003; Hawkins and Tulsky 2003; Whitaker 2008; Weiss et al, 2010; Estevis et al 2012

IQ tests cannot predict with accuracy how people function in their daily lives. They do not measure social abilities, emotional behaviour or daily functioning.

References to support this:

Wechsler 1975; Kaufman and Lichtenberger 2006; Groth-Marnat, 2009; Kaufman 2009

 

The assessment of intelligence needs to consider other aspects of an individual’s life, and cannot rely just on the results of testing.

References to support this:

Wechsler 1975; Roid and Barram 2004; Wechsler 2008; Faguy 2012; Lechner and Rammstedt, 2015

Intelligence is more complex than the areas covered by IQ tests. Indeed, the prevailing direction of psychology is that it is made up of many areas, some of which cover personal, social and emotional issues.

References to support this:

Gardner 1983; Sternberg 1985; Goleman 1996; Austin and Saklofske 2005; Stanovich 2009; MacCann 2010; Faguy 2012; Mayer et al 2012; Qualter et al 2012

 

References:

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Austin E. J and Saklofske D. H (2005) Far too many intelligences? On the communalities and differences between social, practical and emotional intelligences. In, Roberts R D. (Ed.) Emotional Intelligence: An International Handbook. Ashland. Hogrefe and Huber.

Benson N., Hulac D. M and Kranzler J. H (2010) Independent examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS IV): What does the WAIS IV measure? Psychological Assessment. Vol. 22. 1. pp 121 – 130.

Chelune G. J (2003) Assessing reliable neuropsychological change. In: Franklin R. D (Ed); Prediction in Forensic and Neuropsychology: Sound Statistical Practices. LEA. London.

Chen H. Pan T and Zhu J. (2016).  It is the examinees IQ.  Psychological Assessment, February 15th first posting.

Estevis E. Basso M. R and Combs D (2012) Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV across 3- and 6-month intervals. Clinical Neuropsychologist. Vol. 26. (2). Pp 239 – 254.

Faguy K (2012) Emotional Intelligence in Health care. Radiologic Technology. Vol. 83 (3), pp 237 – 253.

Furnham A, Boo H C and McClelland A (2012) Individual differences and the susceptibility to the influence of anchoring cues. Journal of Individual Differences. Vol 33 (2) pp 89 – 93

Gardner H (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York. Basic Books.

Gardner H (1999) Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York. Basic Books.

Goleman D (1996) Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. London. Bloomsbury.

Gomez R, Vance A and Watson S (2016).  Bi-factor model of WISC-IV:  Applicability and measurement in variants in low and normal IQ groups.  Psychological Assessment, September 5th first posting.

Gordon S. Duff S. Davidson T and Whitaker S (2010) Comparison of the WAIS III and WISC IV in 16 year old special education students. J. of App Research in ID. Vol. 23. pp 197 – 200.

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Lechner C. M and Rammstedt B. (2015).  Cognitive ability, acquiescence and the structure of personality in a sample of older adults.  Psychological Assessment.  Vol. 27 (4). pp 1301 – 1311.

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